Bladder dysfunction affects the way a person holds or releases urine. This may include urgency of urination, frequency of urination, ability to “hold” urine during the day or night, urinary incontinence, infrequent voiding (not urinating often), constipation or other diagnoses.
Functional Urinary Incontinence
The involuntary loss of urine due to limitations in movement, cognition, or communication. Their bladder is working normally. Amount of urine can vary. It may be just a leak, or a complete release. Most common amongst elderly patients with arthritis, Parkinson’s, or Alzheimer’s disease.
Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (PFD)
Describes a number of conditions that may affect the urinary, reproductive, digestive, sexual and/or stability systems in the pelvis. It can indicate the presence of dysfunction in the muscles, joints, nerves, and connective tissues of the pelvis. PFD occurs when these muscles of the pelvic floor are weak, tight or torn.
Refer to problems with urinating and passing stools. This affects the organs in the digestive system, including the small and large intestines. They can prevent the body from properly digesting. These may lead to the unwanted passage of urine or stool, called urinary or fecal incontinence.
Hormonal imbalances occur when there is too much or too little of a hormone in the bloodstream. Because of their essential role in the body, even small hormonal imbalances can cause side effects throughout the body. Hormones are chemicals that are produced by glands in the endocrine system.
Due to a variety of causative factors, PFD may present with a wide array of symptoms and impairments, some of which are easily recognizable and others which can be confusing or misleading. It is important to note that while symptoms of PFD are common, there is not a “standard” or “typical” treatment.
Relaxation of the supportive tissues of the bladder causing it to descend and protrude into the anterior vaginal wall. Also known as a fallen bladder, it is caused by ligaments holding the bladder up and the muscle between the vagina and bladder weakening or stretching.
Involuntary loss of urine during sleep. This is also referred to as bed-wetting or nighttime incontinence. It can occur up to age 5 as part of normal childhood development. For adults, it can be caused by substance abuse such as alcohol intoxication, or a blockage in part of the urinary tract.
Also referred to as Post-Micturition Dribble, this is the loss of a small amount of urine after voiding appears to be complete. It can occur in women but is more common for men. PMD happens when the pelvic floor muscles are weakened. This can be the result of BPH, straining to empty bowels, chronic cough, etc.
Relaxation of the supportive tissues of the small intestine causing it to descend and protrude into the posterior/superior vaginal wall. This is a type of pelvic organ prolapse. Causes can range from Childbirth, aging and other processes that put pressure on your pelvic floor .
Overflow Urinary Incontinence
Involuntary loss of urine associated with overdistention of the bladder. It may or may not be associated with detrusor contraction. There tends to be continuous leakage both day and night. Causes can be associated with blockages of the urethra, urinary stones, scar tissue, swelling from infection, etc.
Rectocele, also referred to as Posterior Vaginal Prolapse, is the result of the separation of thin tissue between the rectum and vagina becoming weak, allowing the vaginal wall to bulge. When processes such as childbirth put pressure on these pelvic tissues, it causes rectocele. A small rectocele may cause no symptoms.
Sexual Dysfunction is the difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm. Some cases of Sexual Dysfunction aren't caused by underlying disease, such as stress, substance abuse, or emotional factors.
Straining is pushing in order to urinate which signals problems with the normal contracting of the bladder or bladder outlet obstruction and urethra. It is essentially the raised intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) to expel urine. The causes differ from men to women, and can be associated with Urinary Retention and Hesitancy.
SUI, Genuine stress incontinence (GUSI)
Genuine Stress Incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine occurring in the absence of a detrusor contraction, when the intravesical pressure exceeds the maximum urethral pressure. This results in a small volume fluid loss, frequently a spot, and occurs at the same time as an increased IAP.
Urinary Hesitancy occurs when someone is experiencing voiding issues that make them unable to start or maintain a stream of urine. The bladder is unable to empty completely. It can happen to anyone of any age, but is most common in older men. Causes of hesitancy can be enlarged prostate, BPH, never issues, infections, certain medications, blockage of the urinary bladder, etc.
Urinary Retention occurs when the bladder does not empty all the way after you urinate, where >100mL of the urine remains in the bladder after voiding. Retention can be acute or chronic, and can be caused from BPH, enlarged prostate, constipation, a blockage in the urinary tract, infections, swelling, never issues, etc.
Urinary Urge Incontinence
Urinary Urge Incontinence is the strong and sudden sensation to urinate that you may not be able to delay. This results in the bladder squeezing, and uncontrollable loss of urine. Because the bladder muscles are squeezing and contracting at the wrong times, urge incontinence may occur even if the bladder is not completely full.
Urogynecology is a specialized field of study combining urology with obstetrics and gynecology. Urogynecologists work to evaluate, treat, and manage female pelvic medicine and pelvic floor disorders through both surgical and non surgical services. Our Urogynecologists are fellowship-trained and board certified surgeons who specializes in pelvic health Care.
Uterine (Uterovaginal) Prolapse
Because the pelvic floor muscles and ligaments support the Uterus, when they have been stretched and weakened this results in a Uterine Prolapse. This is where the Uterus has protruded out of or slipped down into the vagina. Causes can stem from difficulty with labor and vaginal delivery, age and low estrogen levels, chronic constipation, repeated heavy lifting, etc.